The Articles of Dume
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Dunes formed under similar climates in the geologic past and at certain times occupied deserts as extensive as modern ones. Rocks formed by the solidification of ancient sand seas occur, for example, in the walls of the Grand Canyon in the southwestern United States, in the West Midlands of England , and in southern Brazil. An understanding of sand dunes requires a basic knowledge of their sands, the winds, and the interactions of these main elements.
These factors will be treated in turn in the following sections. Dunes are almost invariably built of particles of sand size. Clay particles are not usually picked up by the wind because of their mutual coherence , and if they are picked up they tend to be lifted high into the air. Only where clays are aggregated into particles of sand size, as on the Gulf Coast of Texas, will they be formed into dunes.
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Silt is more easily picked up by the wind but is carried away faster than sand, and there are few signs of dunelike bed forms where silt is deposited , for instance as sheets of loess. Particles coarser than sands, such as small pebbles , only form dunelike features when there are strong and persistent winds, as in coastal Peru , and these coarse-grained features are generally known as granule ripples rather than dunes. Larger particles, such as small boulders , can be moved by the wind only on slippery surfaces e.
Common dune sands have median grain diameters between 0.
The Articles of Dume
The maximum common range is between 0. Most dune sands are well sorted, and a sample of sand from a dune will usually have particles all of very similar size. The sand on sand sheets, however, is poorly sorted and often bimodal—i. Windblown sands, especially the coarser particles, are often rounded and minutely pitted, the latter giving the grains a frosted appearance when seen under a microscope.
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Most windblown sand on the Earth is composed of quartz. Quartz exists in large quantities in many igneous and metamorphic rocks in crystals of sand size. It tends to accumulate when these rocks are weathered away because it resists chemical breakdown better than most minerals, which are taken away in solution.
It is highly addictive, and has the side effect of turning the eye of the user a deep blue. Spice mining is dangerous, not just because of sandstorms and nomad attacks, but because the noise attracts giant sandworms, behemoths many hundreds of metres in length that travel through the dunes like whales through the ocean. Have the Harkonnens really given up Dune, this source of fabulous riches?avion-ltd.ru/mambots/hidden/2371-comment-pirater-telephone.html
Dune, 50 years on: how a science fiction novel changed the world
Of course not. Treachery and tragedy duly ensue, and young Paul survives a general bloodbath to go on the run in the hostile open desert, accompanied, unusually for an adventure story, by his mum. Paul is already showing signs of a kind of cosmic precociousness, and people suspect that he may even be the messiah figure foretold in ancient prophecies. His mother, Jessica, is an initiate of the great female powerbase in an otherwise patriarchal galactic order, a religious sisterhood called the Bene Gesserit. Witchy and psychically powerful, the sisters have engaged in millennia of eugenic programming, of which Paul may be the culmination.
For Smith, altered states of consciousness were mainly tools for the whiteous and righteous to vaporise whole solar systems of subversives, aliens and others with undesirable traits. Herbert, by contrast, was no friend of big government. He had also taken peyote and read Jung. In , a sailing buddy introduced him to the Zen thinker Alan Watts , who was living on a houseboat in Sausalito. Every fantasy reflects the place and time that produced it.
If The Lord of the Rings is about the rise of fascism and the trauma of the second world war, and Game of Thrones , with its cynical realpolitik and cast of precarious, entrepreneurial characters is a fairytale of neoliberalism, then Dune is the paradigmatic fantasy of the Age of Aquarius.
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Remember that European beach grass binding together those shifting dunes? Paul Atreides is a young white man who fulfils a persistent colonial fantasy, that of becoming a God-king to a tribal people. Fremen culture is described in words liberally cribbed from Arabic. They are tough, proud and relatively egalitarian. The harshness of their environment has given them an ethic of fellowship and mutual aid.
Herbert, whose female characters are consistently strong and active, has also ditched the strict sexual divisions of actually existing Bedouin culture. Thus Fremen women do their share of fighting and fearlessly contradict their menfolk, though there is still a fair amount of child-bearing and housework to be done while the men are off riding worms. They are the moral centre of the book, not an ignorant mass to be civilised.
In Islamic eschatology, the honorific Mahdi has a long and complex history. Various leaders have claimed or been given it. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that the numerical, biomass and egg production density of both species have increased within MPAs in southern California  ,  , . However, how much individual reefs contribute to a regional estimate of fish abundance and egg production remains largely unexamined.
Improving the accuracy of habitat area estimates and their associated fish abundance and egg production could help refine oceanographic based models of larval export and connectivity which may be associated with fisheries benefits from marine protected areas, e. Further, incorporating more spatially explicit information into management strategies can increase the economic value of a fishery .
Therefore, refining our ability to map important rocky reef habitats and estimate their contribution to regional abundance and egg production is of high importance. The objectives of this study were to integrate multiple spatial datasets, aerial and satellite photography, underwater field observations and expert judgment into a GIS database to produce fine scale maps of the extent of nearshore subtidal rocky reef habitat in the Santa Monica Bay region.
We then applied these maps, by combining them with available fish density and size structure data from a concurrent comprehensive monitoring program, to explore the impact of habitat area on the relative contribution of individual reefs to a regional estimate of standing stock and reproductive output of California Sheephead and Kelp Bass. Understanding the potential of each area will help target and better generate expectations for fisheries management and habitat restoration efforts.
Finally, we estimated the area of this important nearshore rocky reef habitat in each of the recently designated MPAs in the Santa Monica Bay region and the associated annual egg production. The study area was bounded by the coastline extending from Point Fermin northwest to Deer Creek Figure 1 , and seaward to the 30 m isobaths. The geographic extent of marine rocky reef was mapped by combining several different spatial datasets into a preliminary habitat data layer.
This layer was then validated and refined using underwater field observations and expert judgment. Initial mapping and spatial analysis were done using ArcGIS software. Spatial data layers were created and maintained in the shapefile format, using the UTM Zone 11 North, WGS84 projection to minimize distortion in both area and length measurements. For geographic context and to provide a landward boundary to the mapping and spatial analysis, a shoreline spatial data layer was constructed by combining the two shoreline data layers from the US Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program Internet Map Server .
The shoreline layer for comprises most of the shoreline for the study area, but contains gaps, which were filled using data from the shoreline data layer. The 30 m isobath was mapped by extracting this feature from the bathymetric contour spatial dataset of Kelner et al. Initial mapping of reef extent to create the preliminary habitat map was accomplished by combining three existing vector polygon spatial data sets.
There was no coverage for this data in the portion of the study area from Point Dume northwest to the study area boundary, or in the central portion of the study area from Topanga to Flat Rock Figure 1. From this data layer, only those habitat types that correspond to or function as reef were selected. These habitat types included: deformed hummocky bedrock, differentially eroded deformed bedrock, hard anthropogenic mounds, hummocky bedrock, hummocky sediment covered deformed bedrock, mixed bimodal sediment over bedrock, mixed sediment and flat bedrock, scoured boulders and pinnacles and volcanic rock.
An example of this layer can be seen in Figure 2A. The second data set was Kelp Canopy shapefile, polygon , a highly precise polygon spatial layer created by using a 2-meter rectangular grid to classify georeferenced aerial photography . As this data layer depicts the kelp canopy primarily Macrocystis pyrifera , the use of the data to map marine hard bottom capable of supporting kelp holdfasts introduces some error into the analysis.
Three years , and of data were used in an effort to account for some of the annual variation in kelp canopy. An example of this layer can be seen in Figure 2B. The final data set used for the preliminary habitat layer was the coarse-scale mapping of hard bottom shapefile, polygon between the 10 and 30 m isobaths from Kelner et al. This layer only discriminates between soft sediment and hard bottom, and lacks spatial resolution in identifying boundaries between these two bottom types. It was used primarily to verify bottom type in areas not covered by the above two datasets. The layers were merged using a GIS union to create a single spatial data layer, the preliminary habitat map, retaining reference to the source data in the attribute table of the resulting data layers derived from this data layer.
A Orange — side scan sonar - Habitat Classification. B Green — Kelp Canopy. C Yellow — course scale habitat and previously unmapped shallow rocky reef habitat. D All three layers combined exhibiting total extent of rocky reef habitat which is displayed for the region in Figure 1. As the preliminary habitat map was constructed of spatial data that does not cover the entire study area, mapping was completed and validated by a variety of techniques.
To verify the accuracy and coverage of the spatial data layer, two methods were used. This technique was also used to map bottom habitat directly for the shallow zone in areas and depths where the side scan sonar survey did not collect data, and the water was shallow and clear enough to see habitat variation in the aerial photographs. The aerial imagery showed numerous additional nearshore areas were composed of hard bottom, and that the kelp canopy was more extensive than depicted in the kelp canopy data. These data corrections were added to the 3rd preliminary habitat spatial data layer Figure 2C , again retaining data source information using the polygon attributes.
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In addition to verification using aerial imagery, the observed bottom characteristics during fish sampling described below were compared with the corresponding point locations on the preliminary habitat map. All maps were then reviewed and checked for accuracy by scientific divers who have extensive experience in the area. Finally, specific reefs were delineated and named by best professional judgment as known areas of coastline of similar contiguous habitats Figure 1. California Sheephead and Kelp Bass density and size structure were extracted from data collected from through following a standardized comprehensive community monitoring survey protocol; for more details on the protocol see .
To convert to densities per m 2 of sea floor, abundance per transect was summed across all levels and divided by Some California Sheephead tend to follow divers, while Kelp Bass appear to be repelled by divers in some circumstances and attracted to divers in others. This was accounted for by using only highly trained divers that count each fish once, always looking forward on the transect, and not counting fish that come up from behind .
At each site, transects are laid out in a stratified random design, with 4 transects located in each of four depth zones: inner target depth 5 m; actual surveyed depths 3 to 8 m , middle target depth 10 m; actual surveyed depths 7 to 13 m , outer target depth 15 m; actual surveyed depths 11 to 19 m , and deep target depth 25 m; actual surveyed depths 18 to 30 m. Only depth zones containing rocky reef habitat at each site are sampled, thus for a site containing all four depth zones, 16 fish transects each with a benthic, midwater and canopy portion would be conducted on a sampling occasion.
Canopy portions were only surveyed when giant kelp canopy was present and otherwise it was observed that Kelp Bass and California Sheephead were not present along the ocean surface in the absence of kelp canopy during these surveys. Three meters of visibility was the minimum threshold for sampling. However, to calculate the length specific batch fecundity relationship Figure 3 , we used updated life history parameters where available  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ; see Table 2 for source details for each parameter.
Also, an error was discovered and corrected in the size-specific batch fecundity relationship for Kelp Bass from Oda et al. Also, since Kelp Bass sex was not identified during surveys while it was for California Sheephead , annual fecundity was estimated for all Kelp Bass and then multiplied by an estimate of female:male sex ratio Table 2. Relationship between total length and annual egg production for individual California Sheephead Semicossyphus pulcher solid line and Kelp Bass Paralabrax clathratus dashed line calculated using sources in Table 2.
At each sampling location, only depth zones where rocky reef habitat was present were sampled. Therefore, we estimated the proportion of area of each reef in each depth zone by dividing the number of fish transects in each depth zone by the total number of transects for that reef.